Inquiry reports

The CCMC’s inquiries into banks’ compliance with the Code of Banking Practice aim to encourage changes in industry behaviour where we’ve identified room for improvement, and highlight good practice.

January 2017                  Provision of credit Inquiry

This inquiry examined Code-subscribing banks’ compliance with their provision of credit obligations under clause 27 of the Code of banking Practice. The CCMC found that

The Inquiry focused on unsecured credit and the CCMC found that banks generally have robust, and often complex, processes in place to assess applications for unsecured credit in compliance with the Code.

Information provided to the Inquiry suggests that the majority of applications for unsecured credit are processed using automated systems. The CCMC has stated that up-to-date information regarding a customer’s financial position should be incorporated into the credit assessment, whether processed manually or by an automated system. The CCMC considers that having a full and current picture of a customer’s financial circumstances is fundamental to complying with the Code obligations.

The CCMC made nine recommendations in its Report, which:

  • support Code compliance, and
  • can assist banks to continuously work towards improving standards of practice and service in the banking industry as anticipated by clause 3.1(a) of the Code.
CCMC Provision of credit Own Motion Inquiry Report PDF (803 KB, 34 pages)

November 2015             Financial difficulty Inquiry

This inquiry examined Code-subscribing banks’ compliance with their financial difficulty obligations under clause 28 of the Code of Banking Practice. The CCMC found that all subscribing banks have in place procedures to try to help customers overcome their financial difficulties with credit facilities they have with their bank, as required by the Code. In addition, banks have confirmed it is their policy to engage actively and co-operatively with customers to ensure effective outcomes.

Overall, consumer advocates confirmed that banks have made improvements to the way in which they deal with customers experiencing financial difficulty, however issues still occur for both individual and small business customers, particularly where a customer’s situation is unique or requires longer-term solutions.

As such, the CCMC  identified a number of ways in which banks could increase their level of compliance with the Code.

CCMC Financial difficulty Inquiry PDF (1.2 MB, 41 pages)

October 2013             Chargebacks Follow-up Inquiry

This inquiry examined whether banks had improved their practices regarding ‘chargebacks’ since our 2011 inquiry. A chargeback describes a process whereby a bank, at the request of a customer, can reclaim a debit on a credit card from a merchant’s bank. We found that banks which had implemented recommendations from our 2011 inquiry had improved compliance rates. We encouraged all banks to consider how best to improve information provided to consumers about their rights, the chargebacks dispute process and where to find other information about Code obligations in this area.

CCMC Chargebacks Follow-up Inquiry PDF (132 KB, 5 pages)

June 2013                   Guarantees Inquiry

This inquiry examined banks’ compliance with their pre-contractual obligations before accepting a Guarantee to secure a credit facility. We found that banks had appropriate policies and procedures in place to meet their code obligations. However, discussions with financial counsellors demonstrated that there could be considerable impact on consumers when these procedures were not followed. We recommended that banks improve the disclosure of general warnings within pre-contractual documentation, and refine the way ‘vulnerable’ potential guarantors are identified and treated.

Inquiry Report: Pre-contractual Obligations in Relation to Guarantees under the 2004 Code of Banking Practice PDF (1.10 MB, 36 pages)

July 2012                    Foreign Currency Loans Inquiry

This inquiry examined whether banks were meeting their code obligations when providing customers with foreign currency loans – a loan facility that allows for a sum of money to be borrowed in Australia in a currency other than Australian Dollars.

We found that banks had met their obligations by providing a general warning in writing of the risks arising from exchange rate movements, and information about possible risk mitigation mechanisms, before granting a foreign currency loan contract. However, two banks provided the required information at the time the Letter of Offer was produced, without previously discussing risks with customers. We recommended that warnings be given before any formal bank offer for the foreign currency loan so that customers have sufficient time to consider and mitigate any risks, and make informed decisions.

CCMC Inquiry Report: Foreign Currency Loans PDF (212 KB, 17 pages)

May 2012                   Direct Debits Follow up Inquiry Report

A customer’s ability to cancel direct debits at their bank is a powerful safeguard, especially for customers in financial difficulty. This inquiry used ‘shadow shopping’ exercises to determine if banks had improved the information provided to customers about the cancellation of direct debits following our 2008 inquiry. We found that the level of compliance had not improved since the first inquiry, demonstrating that banks must be conscientious in providing training and information to staff in respect of direct debits. Banks must also have sufficient quality assurance and monitoring in place to identify and correct non-compliance.

CCMC Direct Debits Follow up Inquiry Report PDF (118 KB, 6 pages)

January 2012            Chargebacks Inquiry Report

This inquiry examined banks practices regarding ‘chargebacks’ – a process whereby a bank, at the request of a customer, can reclaim a debit on a credit card from a merchant’s bank. We found that banks had received more than 90,000 chargeback requests in March 2011 – the sample month – with a corresponding low number of complaints. We also identified areas of good industry practice and areas for improvements within banks.

CCMC Chargebacks Inquiry Report PDF (198 KB, 8 pages)

November 2011        Account Suitability Inquiry Report

This inquiry was based on research undertaken by students enrolled in the University of Melbourne’s business consulting subject in the Faculty of Business and Economics. These students reviewed banks’ interpretation and compliance with clause 14, which requires banks to provide low income earners with details of accounts that are suitable to their needs and requirements. The inquiry concluded that banks have strong policies and procedures in place in relation to customers who may be eligible for basic bank accounts. Mystery shopping exercises suggested that bank staff had good knowledge of account products and features.

Account Suitability – An examination of Compliance with Clause 14 Code of Banking Practice PDF (156 KB, 5 pages)

September 2010       Visibility and Access Inquiry Report

This inquiry examined whether banks were managing their commitment to individual and small business customers by providing visible and accessible web-based information about the Code, and internal dispute resolution (IDR) and external dispute resolution (EDR) processes. All websites we reviewed complied with the basic requirements and met the minimum standards regarding visibility and access to Code, IDR and EDR information. Only one website did not meet basic requirements and standards.

Visibility and Access – An examination of web‐based information available to customers relating to the Code of Banking Practice, internal dispute resolution and external dispute resolution PDF (1.19 MB, 41 pages)

June 2009                  Direct Debits Inquiry Report

This inquiry examined whether banks were meeting their promise to individual and small business customers under clause 19 regarding their ability to cancel direct debits via the bank. We found that while banks had appropriate policies and procedures in place, 8 out of 10 ‘shadow’ shoppers received incorrect or partially incorrect information. We met with all banks involved in the review, which have since undertaken a range of activities to remedy areas of non-compliance.

Direct Debits – A review into the operation of clause 19 of the Code of Banking Practice PDF (200 KB, 23 pages)

February 2008           Inquiry into bank compliance with Clause 29 of the Code of Banking Practice

This inquiry examined banks’ compliance with clause 29, which required banks and their collection agents to comply with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission’s guideline Debt Collection and the Trade Practices Act (June 1999). Responses provided by all banks suggested a strong commitment to compliance, however, on closer examination we found that some banks’ monitoring systems were failing to identify breaches of clause 29, and that training programs for staff on debt collection obligations could be improved.

Inquiry into bank compliance with Clause 29 of the Code of Banking Practice PDF (189 KB, 25 pages)

March 2007                Account suitability Inquiry Report

This inquiry examined banks’ compliance with clause 14, which requires banks to provide low income earners with details of accounts that are suitable to their needs and requirements. We found that banks were addressing the needs of low income and disadvantaged customers, both through the products available on the market and in directing these customers to appropriate products. Banks generally assessed customer needs before recommending an account type. It was also evident that staff training focused on how to meaningfully assess customer needs and develop a high level of product knowledge.

CCMC Inquiry into Clause 14 of the Code of Banking Practice PDF (176 KB, 21 pages)

December 2005        CCMC Inquiry into Bank compliance with clause 25.2 of the Code (Financial Difficulty)

A key provision of the Code requires banks to try to help customers who are experiencing financial difficulties with any credit facility they have with the bank. This inquiry into whether banks were meeting their obligations to customers in financial difficulties found the banks understood their obligations and were making genuine and largely successful attempts to meet them.

CCMC Inquiry into Bank compliance with clause 25.2 of the Code PDF (85 KB, 5 pages)